Similarities in Different Languages

Ever discovered any similarities in words of different languages? Well, we need not be baffled to find common or similar words in Hindi-Sanskrit, Urdu-Persian and English. There are hundreds of such words which show relationship among these languages of North India, Middle East and Europe.
Philologists have subdivided all human languages in various "Language Families." The largest and the most prominent language family is called INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGE FAMILY. It includes all the INDO-ARYAN languages of north India (Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Oriya, Assamese, Gujarati, Marathi and Punjabi), all the languages of Europe and the languages of Middle East (Persian, Pashto etc). Arabic, Hebrew and the like belong to a separate language family called SEMETIC LANGUAGE FAMILY. They are not included in INDO EUROPEON LANGUAGE FAMILY, even though they feature in the Middle East. Similarly, languages of south India ( Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam) belong to DRAVID LANGUAGE FAMILY. Tongues spoken by tribals of Madhya Pradesh, Chhotanagpur, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Orissa are collectively called AUSTRIC LANGUAGE FAMILY.

  Please note that I am talking about languages and not about scripts.

Let us come back to "Indo European Language Family". Philologists opine that language about 10 to 15 thousand years ago in the Middle East and the surrounding areas is the fore-runner of all the languages of the Middle East, North India and Europe. Script had not evolved till then and so, no written specimen of it found so far. It is lost in time. The descendents of that language divided in two Language Sub-families--CANTUM and SHATAM. Cantum Sub-family, initially, had Greek and Latin. Greek and Latin, subsequently, branched off into all the modern European languages. SHATAM SUB-FAMILY gave rise to Persian, Pehelvi, Pashto languages on one hand Sanskrit on the other hand. The descendents of Sanskrit are modern Indo-Aryan languages of north India like Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Oriya, Assamese, Gujarati, Marathi and Punjabi. Since Sanskrit (and its descendent languages), Persian(and its descendent languages) and Greek( and all European languages) are derived from the same language, many common or similar words are found in all these languages of India, Europe and middle East.

Do not be surprised if AL-JABAR of Persian is ALGEBRA in English. ANGUSHTHA of Sanskrit is ANGUSHTA in Persian. For hand, the Sanskrit word is HASTA in both Sanskrit and Persian. BHRATRI of Sanskrit is BIRADAR in Persian, BROTHER in English and BHRATA in Hindi. What BETTER is in English is BEHTAR in Persian and Urdu and VRIHATTAR in Sanskrit. Hindi-Sanskrit BHAAR is BAAR in Urdu-Persian. BAD of English is BAD (with changed pronunciation) in Urdu. So, BAD NAME is BADNAAM in Urdu. NAME and NAAM are so similar. CHATWAR is in Sanskrit meaning four. It is CHAAR in Hindi and CHAHAAR in Persian (as in CHAHAARDEEWAARI). When C is pronounced as S, no wonder that SAMITI became COMMITTEE. DUHITRI in Sanskrit is DUHITA in Hindi, DUKHTAR in Persian and DAUGHTER in English. Greek MATRE is MOTHER in English, MAATRI in Sanskrit, MAADER in Persian and MAATAA in Hindi. DOOR of English is DWAAR in Hindi-Sanskrit and DAR in Urdu -Persian. AIK (one) of Hindi is YAK in Persian. Sanskrit SHASHTHA became SIX in English. SEPT became SAPT in Sanskrit and HAFT in Persian. Deca of Greek is DUS in Hindi and DASH in Sanskrit. FATHER is PIDAR in Persian and PITRI in Sanskrit. Persian JUGRAFIA became GEOGRAPHY in English, JARAASEEM is GERMS. GRASS is GHAAS in Hindi and GHAYAAS in Persian. Wheat is called GODHOOM in Sanskrit and GANDUM in Persian. ANTAR of Hindi-Sanskrit is INTER of English and ANDAR in Hindi -Urdu. Hindi- Sanskrit ANTKAAL is INTQAAL in Urdu-Persian. Knee is called JAANU in Sanskrit and ZAANOO in Persian. MOOSHAK of Sanskrit is MOOS in Persian and MOUSE in English for the same rodent. Mihir means Sun both in Sanskrit and Persian. MYTH in English is MITHYA in Hindi-Sanskrit. NAVGATI of Sanskrit is NAVIGATION in English. English NEW is NAV in Sanskrit and NAU in Persian. Path of English is path in Hindi. SHRESHTHI in Sanskrit is SHERIF in English and SHAREEF in
Urdu-Persian. English SAINT is Hindi SANT. For fever we say TAAP in Sanskrit, TAP in Persian and Temperature in English. UPPER is OOPER in Hindi. The list is unending. Even UNENDING is ANANT in Hindi.

It is interesting to note that Greek, Latin, Sanskrit and Persian literatures had nearly the same golden period.
The commonalities cited above are because of common lineage and not because of give and take of vocabulary of two cultures. Exchange of words resulting due to mixing of cultures is a different phenomenon, not covered by this study. Thousands of English, Portuguese, Dutch, French, Persian, Arabic and Turkish words are found in all the languages of India. Their illustration is a part of grammar and not a part of philology.

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