Motivation: What is the theory of Motivation in Management?

Today we will talk about how motivation drives people within. Motivation is defined as the inner drive to act in a certain manner. Behind every action there is a motive.

Importance of Motivation

  • Motivation fills the gap between ability and willingness. Motivation gives reason for people to get to work or action. Without motivation man wouldn’t feel the need to work. So in order to achieve goals he puts himself and his resources into use.
  • By judiciously putting resources to work and its repetition leads to efficiency in an employees work.
  • Motivation helps in achievement of organisational goals as efficiency and productivity in the work of an employee improves.
  • Motivation brings in a positive attitude in employees which helps them perform well and also brings in stability of human resource due to increased job satisfaction.

Theories of Motivation

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory

  1. Physiological needs include basic needs like food, shelter, clothing etc. Without fulfilling these needs a person does not think about the next level.
  2. Security needs include physical safety and job security for basic sustenance.
  3. Social needs consist of affiliation needs like family, friendships and other informal groups.
  4. Self- esteem needs are the needs that bring confidence, self-respect and competence in a person.
  5. Self-Actualisation refers to the maximum potential a person can reach.

Herzberg’s Two –Factor Theory of Motivation

In 1959, Fredrick Herzberg propounded the two factor theory of motivation. In this theory if a factor does not satisfy, it may not even dissatisfy a person. The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. His theory was based on identifying two different aspects of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction- motivators and hygiene factors.

Hygiene factors are the job factors that cause dissatisfaction or no dissatisfaction in a job. Absence of hygiene factors are the reason for job dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors are also called maintenance factors and for most employees these could be the basic minimum requirements. Factors like pay, benefits, company policies, job security, status, physical working conditions are included in hygiene factors.

Motivators are factors that affect motivation in a positive manner. These lead to satisfaction or no satisfaction at all. Motivators yield for higher performance. Growth and recognition are identified as one of the most influential motivators. These root from the basic tasks that an individual performs during the work.

• Equity Theory
Equity theory is based on the principle of balance or equity. This theory says that a person’s motivational level is based on his perception of equity and fairness. An employee judges fairness by evaluating the correlation between his inputs, like the hard work, time and effort he puts into his work, and his outputs like salary and other perks. He compares the ratio with that of his colleagues. Employees expect an equitable or positive ratio compared to their co-workers. If they perceive that it is not positive their motivational level reacts negatively.

• Expectancy Theory
Expectancy theory was propounded by Victor Vroom in 1964. Unlike Maslow's and Herzberg's theory this theory focuses on outcomes. As the name reveals this theory relates an employee’s work to his expectancy of outcomes. An employee’s motivational level depends on his expected rewards. After he asses this he performs his work with an amount of motivation and efficiency that is equivalent to the expected rewards.

In this theory work motivation relationship has three phases-
  1. Effort-performance relationship- An employee's performance depends upon the effort he makes.
  2. Performance-rewards relationship- The employee believes that putting in a certain amount of work will fetch him attractive rewards, then he becomes motivated.
  3. Rewards-Outcome- Finally if the employee believes that the rewards match with his personal goals he tries his best to attain organisational goals.
Elements like instrumentality and valence play vital role in this theory. Instrumentality refers to the thought that effort and performance will lead to desired rewards. Valence is importance of a reward to a person. If the reward is significant to an employee only then does the employee put in effort.

Finally from all the motivational theories discussed above we observe that all theories revolve around a person’s needs and internal motivation also plays a great role in increasing motivational level. Because only if a person feels that the incentive or outcome is appealing to him and matches with his personal goals, only then does he become motivated. All these theories help a manager understand the employee’s psychology and then he carefully designs incentives and lays it down before his employees. Motivation derives a positive feeling in an employee which increases job satisfaction and helps reduce employee turnover in the longer run.

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Group Dynamics :Types, Development & Structure

In this article we will talk about how group dynamics work in an organisational setup so as to understand the effects and deal with them accordingly.A group consists of two or more members who come together and work together to achieve a common goal. Groups can be of many types. They can be classified into formal groups and informal groups.
  1. Formal groups are the groups that are deliberately decided by the management. Formal groups can be categorised into command group, task groups and functional groups.
    • Command groups are designed by the organisation according to the man-power requirement in each segment of the organisation. Each group member have assigned roles and established working relationships.
    • Task groups are formed to accomplish a particular task or project. Task groups have a limited range of goals to be achieved which doesn’t extend after the duration period of the task or the project.
    • Functional groups are created by the organisation to achieve goals. These type of groups exist throughout the life of the organisation. The finance department, marketing department, legal department, production and logistics department are a few examples of functional groups.
  2. Informal groups are groups that arise out of the social needs of people. Informal groups consist of interest groups, friendship groups, and reference groups.
    • Interest groups are groups that come together due to a common interest like working professionals from various fields coming together to adopt ecological friendly practices in their field or simply they are a group of tree-hugging enthusiasts. Interest groups usually last longer than any other informal groups because they are bound together by a common interest.
    • People with similar social activities, political or religious beliefs, people belonging to the same community in the society form friendship groups.
    • Reference groups are a type of group that people socially compare themselves with or try to associate with them. People often alter their attitudes and behaviour to that of the reference group. Common examples are family, friends and religious groups.

Group Development

Forming a group is the first stage of group development. This stage is characterised by a lot of confusion among group members about the objective of the group and their individual roles. Neither the leader nor any major objective of the group has been decided.

Storming: This stage is marked with conflict. Group members tend to disagree on matters relating to the group objective, leadership and power roles. Members often criticise and raise their concerns.

Norming: This stage is characterised by mutual understanding and co-operation after getting into discussions or even arguments and effectively making sense of what the common goal and task is.

Performing occurs after all group norms have been laid down and the goals to be achieved by the group is put down on the table. In this stage group members focus on work performance of members and make rational decisions.

Adjourning is the last stage of group development. The members of the group disband when the group has performed all its tasks and achieved all goals. This stage is mainly occurs in temporarily formed groups such as task groups. Most groups do not arrive at this stage.

Group Structure

Group structure is the relational structure of group members that binds them together and helps them achieve group goals as well as organisational goals.

Group Size is the number of members in a group. Some believe that the ideal size of the group is in between five to seven;although this varies according to necessities of the group. In a smaller group of five people, members interact more and there is a stronger sense of belonging amongst the members. Also, the smaller the group the more the individual participates. It is a fact that group participation increases job satisfaction.

Group Roles are associated with duties and responsibilities of every member of the group. Roles are predetermined in case of formal groups. But some roles arise as soon as one takes a particular position and responsibility in a group. Roles can be work roles that are roles to be performed related to work, maintenance roles like gatekeepers or blocking roles. Gatekeepers try to keep communication going and encourage participation.

Group Norms are standards of behaviour that are deemed acceptable by a group. Group norms are formed on mutual agreement with the group’s members. Norms are made to strengthen the group and avoid unpredictable behaviour. A lot of emphasis is given on conformity to norms as it shows the level of motivation and commitment of the group.

Group Cohesiveness refers to the bonding of group members and the level of co-operation among them. Cohesion is a positive attribute of a group as so are its effects.

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Difference between attitude and value ~ Organizational Behavior

Attitude

Attitudes are judgements or opinions about a certain person or an object. Attitude has three components- cognitive, affective and behavioural also called the ABC model.
Cognitive
Cognitive component of attitude refers to a person’s opinion, beliefs or thought about an object or an idea. For example the person is against the idea of a corrupted society.
Affective
Affective component is the part of attitude that drives our feelings. It reveals how one feels about an idea. For example, when a person says that he or she is against corruption and does not encourage it in any way or another might feel that it is sometimes more practical.
Behavioural
Behavioural component is about the behaviour one shows or how one actually reacts when they encounter the said object. The same person bribes a traffic policeman on his or her way to work. Here the behavioural component may or may not be consistent with the cognitive or affective component.

The ABC model explains the different aspects of the attitude spectrum. Usually a person’s attitude is said to be consistent but it is not always true. For example people who say they believe in honesty and ethical behaviour may also be the ones who act differently and use unethical means to get work done.

Functions of Attitude

The Adjustment function- Very often an employee has to adjust to their work environment and a positive attitude help them to do that.

Ego-defensive function- Attitudes help people maintain dignity and self-respect. A very common situation in most offices is that when managers or seniors feel threatened by someone younger with talent and new ideas they react by initially disapproving of them. Good managers however do acknowledge the better ideas ultimately.

Value-Expressive function- To people, attitudes act as a basis for expressing their values. Like someone who is hard working and strongly believes in work ethics, will disapprove of his colleague who slacks on his job and uses unethical means to get his work done.

Knowledge function- Attitude provides standards and parameters of reference so that it becomes easy for them to perceive their environment. If one’s attitude towards another object is constant then they will always perceive the object the same way.

Values

Values are strong beliefs held by a person about what’s right and what’s wrong. Values can be terminal or instrumental.
Terminal values are end states that a person wants to achieve in life like wanting to be successful or growth in career.
Instrumental values are values through which a person achieves those end states.

Formation of values

Values present in a person are often a result of internal and external influences like family, culture, community and even television. Throughout childhood and even in adulthood one learns values from parents or a model figure and imitates them. Values are also formed through the process of socialising. Through socialising one borrows values from people he socialises with, compares his morals and values and filters them to form a set of values.

Values in the Workplace

At the end of the day values imbibed in a person affects behaviour even at the workplace because an employee comes to work as a whole person. Values are also important to be professional which is the reason why every organisation emphasises on having values. Also, an organisation hires those candidates that share the same values as the organisation. Values that are shared widely by the employees of an organisation overtime turns into organisational culture.

Every organisation has a mission statement. Through its mission statement the organisation shares its values with the public. The mission statement acts as a criterion for hiring candidates that share the same values, in hopes that while exhibiting these values they would help the organisation complete its mission as expressed in the mission statement.

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction determines how content an employee is with his work which also affects his attitude towards work. An employee asses his current job situation like the working conditions, salary, bonuses, promotions, other financial perks and also factors like level of responsibility, creativity and flexibility affect the level of job satisfaction. Presence of such elements in a job will bring a positive in an employee towards work as long as the elements meet the employee’s personal goals.

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What is a good diet for a teenager?

Understanding the importance of a proper diet for teens

With people becoming more and more health conscious, there is a lot that we hear and read about healthy eating, but this article is specifically for health conscious teenagers who may want to lose weight or just maintain a healthy body. It is important for teenagers to consume a balanced diet, because this is the age of growth and thus right kind of energy giving foods are required. There should be an optimal balance of energy as well as nutrients.

And at the same time, majority of teenagers cannot compromise with their tasty fast food or Soft Drinks ranging from Hamburgers, Hot Dogs, Donuts to the regular soda drinks. One needs to feel empowered for having made the best choice of mouth-watering food.It is the transitioning phase from being a child to a grown up and thus teenagers experience pampering from their elders as well as expect them to start acting responsibly. Pampering also translates into providing their favourite high calorie food and wanting to negate that effect high calorie effect on our body is also something they want but with the pressure of studies it may not always be possible to do so. Thus it is important to have a diet that caters to these exact needs.

The best diet for teens is one that highly nourishes their system by providing them with all the necessary Vitamins, Proteins and sufficient amount of Carbohydrates. Calcium and Iron are two base nutrients needed as Calcium helps making growing bones much stronger. Iron helps in increasing haemoglobin to avoid any signs of weakness or Fatigue.

Healthy Diet Tips for Teens

  1. Never skip a single meal throughout the day starting from Breakfast, lunch to Dinner. Breakfast can include some fruits or fruit juices.
  2. Parents can talk it out nice to their kids by giving them ideas of healthy options available at a fast food joint or their canteens.
  3. Dine at the table together with the family which can make a lot of difference and relish the food that you eat.
  4. It is optimal to leave a three hour gap between Dinner and sleep. Advisable to have a light dinner with lean proteins and whole grains.
  5. Expert dietitians recommend a 45 minute gap post any meal before drinking water.
  6. Reduce consumption of processed or ready-made food that come in Boxes, cups or Cans.
  7. Plan the daily diet in such a way that there is a wide variety of fruits and Vegetables adding on to all the necessary nutrients one’s body requires.
  8. Chew the food thoroughly as do not gobble down food in a hurry as it is the first major step that helps in digestion. Saliva mixes with the food with essential digestive Enzymes.
It is alright to cheat with high calorie sweets or fast food once in a while. Some Recipes that could make the job all the more easier for parents are as follows.

1.Recommended Breakfast can include dishes such as
  • Organic Berry Bowl(Greek yogurt, local honey)
  • Steel Cut Oatmeal(brown sugar, raisins, pure maple syrup)
  • Organic Granola (berries, almond milk or Greek yogurt)
  • Mexican Burritos that can accompany your favorite dish. Could be even a choice of Salsa Tofu breakfast Burritos.
  • Scrambled eggs with Smoked Salmon, Asparagus and Goat Cheese.
  • Low calorie Strawberry Parfait for those who have a sweet tooth, making Breakfast taste even better like a dessert,
  • Blueberry Banana Smoothie
  • Apple and Veggie Sausage Breakfast Sandwich
  • Creamy wheat Berry Hot Cereal.
  • Herb and Onion Frittata.

2. Recommended Dishes for Lunch And Dinner(or Evening Meal)
  • The Vegetarian Trio- organic roasted garlic hummus, eggplant dip, olive salad, house flatbread
  • Steamed Pork Or Tofu Buns-Autumn Olive Farms roast pork, pickled carrots and cucumbers, cilantro, hoisin barbecue
  • Vegan Calamari-hearts of palm, peppadews, red onion, chipotle lemon vinaigrette, garlic toum
  • Lettuce Wraps-chicken, beef or wild mushrooms & tofu, vermicelli noodles, pickled carrots & cucumber, cilantro, peanuts, trio of sauces.

Apart from these dishes teens can add in supplements for a healthy diet a few of them namely Cod liver oil capsules as they are rich in Omega 3 fatty acids and also comprise of Vitamin D and A. One can always adapt to True discipline which is really just self-remembering; no forcing or fighting is necessary.

Please note that all recommendations are purely based on experience and is not medical advice. In case of doubts or medical conditions, one should not follow these recommendations without the advice of a doctor or nutritionist.

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Can you Drink Alcohol and still Diet?

Can you drink beer on a diet? A glass of wine or a can of cold beer can alleviate one’s tension and stress from a long day’s work. Especially when there is an office party and drinks are flowing like a river, right! But today let’s think about alcohol adding extra calories to our diet; Spoils the mood, doesn’t it? The sad fact about alcohol is that it adds calories to our already calorie high every day meals. From a health point of view alcohol after meals is a big no. But what if one can diet and still drink?

We have come up with ways which doesn’t leave one unsatisfied in either of the aspects.

Counting calories

While following a diet, we keep a track of what goes into our body, are aware of what we eat and how many calories and in what quantity we are consuming. It is better to refer to a calorie chart and accordingly decide whether to consume something or not. By counting calories we do not mean cutting on the quantity of food but improving the quality of food that is consumed. One must avoid eating high calorific food and later compensate for it by eating less later because that’s not the way this diet works.

Food before drinks

The next thing one has to take care of is your meal before indulging in a drink. The rule is to not drink before eating. One can fill up with a healthy meal before you decide to drink. Doing this will keep you filled and you end up drinking less alcohol. Never let yourself drink first and compensate for it later because that goes completely against the diet.

Low calorie drinks

Fancy drinks like cosmopolitans and other drinks that have added juices are never a good option. Apart from the calories from the alcohol itself, the sweetened drinks also need to be accounted for. They are just a hindrance to the purpose of the diet.

Small sips

Out for a night of craziness? But throwing down shots and chugging down alcohol is not a smart thing to do. Craziness ends up in craziness. Before one even realises the amount being consumed, one is already drunk and ready to drink more. We know that the next day is spent regretting (or at least reliving the craziness ) the drinks and the bad hangover doesn’t help. So it is wise to order not more than two drinks and try to take small sips of your drink. Drinking slow is a sign of maturity and it makes you seem wise too.

The hydrating agent- H2O

Do not forget to keep drinking water throughout the day especially after a night of drinking. Alcohol makes one dehydrated and the only way to solve this is to keep drinking water. Carry a bottle of water everywhere and make a habit of drinking at least 8 glasses of water daily. One body needs water more than alcohol (Well, alcohol isn’t even in the requirement list).

No binge eating

Avoid eating junk at all costs. Binge eating on junk foods like potato chips, donuts, cupcakes, bagels, chocolates are completely off limits. Drinking adds more than enough calories (quite a lot, actually) over your meals. Binge eating will end up making you bloated and also somewhat of an alcoholic. Thinking of binging on the bar of chocolates you bought today? Think again. It is not too late to change your eating habits. Instead, think about your fitness idol and work towards achieving that great body!

Plan out your diet

In order to keep diet in control, one needs to make a weekly diet chart. Making a week’s diet menu will let one have a control of meals (which we expect will be healthy). Add no space for junk foods and desserts. It is important to know that one drink of beer contains calories equivalent to that of a week’s worth of daily bread. That is why we recommend to completely stay off foods with high calories.

With these tips, lets try to add more fibre to our diet and eat food with minimum calories and maximum nutrients. Cheers!

Disclaimer: The ideas shared in this article are not to be taken as medical opinion. These are solely suggestions provided by the writers which may not be suitable for people of all body types/health conditions. It is advisable to follow your doctor’s/nutritionist’s advice if one is undergoing a treatment or has a medical condition.

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