Difference between Test Case vs Test Scenario in Software Testing

Testing terminologies can sometimes confuse even the most experienced of IT professionals. Today we will discuss about test cases, test scripts and test scenarios which may seem similar to any layman but there is a subtle difference between these terms which make a world of difference for a software tester.
You may also read about Test Plan and Test Strategy | What are they and difference between them.

Test Case

Test cases are a set of valid and invalid procedures for testing of a particular module in an application.
Test cases with a valid procedure are called valid test case and the test case with an invalid procedure is called as invalid test case. In order to do complete testing, both valid and invalid procedures have to be kept so that testing can be done in different conditions.
While designing test cases below terms have to be defined:
  • Test Id: Test Id is unique Id for defining test case
  • Test Case name: Test case name is given to a particular test case.
  • Test case description: It is detailed description of what the test case is going to test.
  • Precondition: These are the steps that have to be implemented before executing the test case.
  • Expected result: Expected result is the outcome which is expected after running the test case.
  • Actual result: Here we record the actual outcome or result obtained after execution of test case.
  • Status: Fail or pass status is decided after the execution of the test case, to identify whether or not actual result matched with the expected outcome.

Test Script

Test Script is the term used in the case of automation testing which is the same as test cases in manual testing.
It is a set of instructions that will be performed on the system under test to test the functionalities of the application. These instructions are in the form of code or a script which can be executed automatically using any automation testing tools.

Test Scenario

Test Scenarios means we are talking about the requirements in detail. Here unlike test cases we are not talking about a particular condition while testing a module. Test scenarios are detailed test procedures which can be consist of multiple test cases associated with it.
In scenario testing, the preparation of scenarios is the most important part, to prepare test scenarios testers need to take help from the developer, business analyst and project manager. A scenario consists of series of activities, each compromising of different inter-related test cases, which a user of the system may execute when system goes live. Here we recreate the user activities to understand how a particular functionality will “play out”.

For example:
  • Validate whether student can add his course or not after logging in.
  • Validate whether the student can edit his course or not.
  • Validate whether the student can delete his course or not.

Read More :
Automated vs. Manual Testing: The Pros and Cons of Each
White-Box Testing: Pros and Cons

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Telematics Insurance: Advantages and Disadvantages of Telematics insurance

When I first learnt about black-box auto insurance I was rather excited as it could help me cut down on my car premium. But as I learnt more about what all is recorded by telematics box, I got bit wary and wondered if it benefits to have telematics box fitted in my car.

Today I would be sharing my views on pros and cons on Telematics – Black Box Insurance.

Advantages of Telematics Insurance

  1. It is good for young drivers. As we discussed in factors affecting car insurance rates, young drivers usually get an unfair deal because they lack driving history and are considered high risk group by insurers. Young drivers who are responsible can benefit from having a box fitted in car which demonstrates to the insurer that they are responsible behind the wheel.
  2. If you drive during off-peak hours you will get rewarded.
  3. Black-Box helps find stolen cars as well as it reports to the insurer in case of accident. In case of accidents, black box can also help determine who was responsible for it as its recording can be yours in legal proceedings.
  4. If you drive less and hardly take your car out for a ride you stand to gain under this policy. Many of us have a car which we take out only at special occasions, in that scenario a usage based insurance will be beneficial.
  5. Having a device monitoring your driving activity all the time can be scary, but it does helps in cultivating good driving practice.

Disadvantages of Telematics Insurance

  1. It is not good for long distance drivers. In case you have to ply long distances often for work and other activities, telematics recording will not be in your favour and car insurance might get expensive for you as compared to normal car policy.
  2. Drivers who are already considered safe e.g. middle aged individuals with good driving history won’t stand to gain much under black box insurance policy.
  3. Breach of privacy is an issue which still needs to be addressed properly. Having extra pair of eyes monitoring you is not something everyone is comfortable with and can be stressful for some.
  4. Typically, the payback period for telematics device ranges from 6 months to a year.
Personally I have gained from getting black-box device fitted in my van and buying a telematics policy as compared to my traditional auto policy, do let me know your views and experiences in comment section.

Read More:
Different Types of Car Insurance
Short term or Temporary Car Insurance for 1-28 days

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Telematics Insurance or Black Box Policy | Car Insurance Policy

Drivers around the world are looking for ways to cut down on auto insurance prices but because of the old traditional factors considered by insurers to calculate insurance quotes there is limited scope as to what a driver can do. (Read about the factors that affect your car insurance quotes).

Telematics Insurance or Black Box Auto Insurance policy takes into consideration these old factors but at the same time uses modern technology to accurately calculate the risk associated with each individual driver. This benefits a responsible driver in a great way as he is not punished for factors beyond his control viz. age, gender, place of residence etc.

What is Telematics and how it works?

Under telematics or black-box car policy, your auto insurer installs an app on your smart mobile or will install a device under the dashboard of your car to record your driving pattern. This devise uses satellite telemetry to read your driving habits and then transmits it to insurer’s database. Typically a telematics device contains a SIM card, GPS, accelerometer and proprietary software of insurer which analyses the data and sends the report back.
Wondering what all is recorded by telemetric blackbox? Parameters that a black box records are customized by each insurer as per their discretion but some of the common things they measure are:
  1. How many miles you log in on an average,
  2. At what time you drive,
  3. Roads you usually ply on,
  4. Traffic conditions when you are on road,
  5. How often you brake and how hard you apply brakes,
  6. Your average speed,
  7. Do you follow speed limits and
  8. Number of breaks you take while on long journey.
All this data is analysed by your insurer to calculate your car insurance risk. Beyond the obvious this device also helps to locate a stolen car or to identify if car has met with an accident.

Read More about benefits of UBI or usage based insurance

Finally it can be said that if you are a safe driver then telematics policy will reward you and will help you get the cheapest possible auto quote.

Next read pros and cons of telematics insurance.

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10 Factors That Affect Your Car Insurance Premium

Yes we all hate buying auto insurance and keep wondering as to how we can save money on car insurance or extract a discount from the insurance agent. In order to get a fair deal in auto insurance market you need to understand what factors affect your car insurance premium and how to control some of them to your advantage.
Insurance premiums are calculated on the basis of risk parameters perceived by insurer and having knowledge of them will help you take an informed decision without compromising on necessary coverage.

Statistical Factors that determine your auto quote

  1. Your Age and Gender
    It has been observed that young male drivers have been involved in higher rates of car accidents. Due to more vulnerability of this demographic group, premiums charged by insurers will be higher. At the same time old males usually have lower premium rates as compared to old women drivers.
  2. Your Marital Status
    Married individuals generally have lower rate of accidents as compared to singles, some may argue with the facts but sense of responsibility does plays a factor here.
  3. Your Profession
    Professions which involve remaining on road for long duration attract higher premiums. Also the profile of job matters here, for example a doctor or police officer is generally considered to be more responsible in his driving habits and thus gets a better quote.
  4. Your area of residence
    In case you live at places where theft, vandalism or accidents occur frequently then your premium amount will shoot up. Also city drivers usually have to cough-up more premium than their rural counterparts. In U.S. Philadelphia and Detroit have the most expensive auto insurance rates because of the high traffic and large number of uninsured drivers on the road.
  5. Type of Vehicle to be covered
    Cars with better safety mechanism in place command less premium thus take note of safety rating of the car before buying it. At the same time cars that are driven by young drivers attract more premium because statistically insurers receive more claims on those particular models. Car with powerful engine are more likely to be involved in costly accident thus sports car incur higher insurance costs.
  6. Age of Car
    Old cars usually have lesser premiums because in case of total damage or significant damage, drivers are mostly likely to opt for dumping it and buying another vehicle. Repairing old car can be more or equally expensive than buying a new car. Whereas in case of new cars, drivers like to go for repairs thus they end up making more claims to insurers, thus high premium.

  7. Personal Factors that influence your auto insurance premium

  8. Your Driving Record
    It pays to be responsible driver, a good driving history can go a long way in reducing the auto insurance burden. Although you can’t change your history but remaining cautious over the period of years can be beneficial to you in long run. Note a DUI ticket can leave a blemish on your history for upto 10 years.
  9. Your Credit History
    You may feel that your credit risk has nothing to do with auto coverage but in reality it is a very important parameter considered by insurers which fixing your rate. A responsible citizen with good credit scores is less likely to file claims. (Read more about How Credit Cards Affect Your Credit Score ).
  10. How much you drive and where
    In case you don’t take your car for a ride often then the possibility of accidental claims is less thus it will benefit you. At the same time if you drive a car at accidental prone roads then your auto quote may increase. ( Read about Pay-As-You-Drive Insurance or Usage Based Insurance)
  11. Type of Coverage You Opt-for
    Depending on the legal obligations and your risk perception you may go for various types of car insurance like third-party, comprehensive, theft, etc. More coverage translates to higher auto quote.
Read More :
Temporary Auto Insurance for 1 -28 days

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Test Plan and Test Strategy | Difference and What are they

Software testing is the most important activity which determines the success of software project and the success of testing activity is determined by robustness of software test strategy.

What is Software Test Strategy?

Testing Strategies are the high level activities which define the approach for testing phase in the software testing life cycle. This approach is usually planned by project manager based on Business Requirements Specifications, design document and architectural design document which are prepared during requirement analysis phase. Test Strategy Documents states the objectives of the testing process, what all standards will be followed along with the timelines. Resource requirements, estimated costs and list of deliverables are also stated in this document.

This document is not changed often during the course of project and is used for guidelines by project members while creating test plans and cases. Big expensive projects should have a comprehensively defined software test strategy document.
Let us look at the various activities which are involved in the test strategy formation:
  • Preparation of test strategies document for various type of testing. The testing can be unit level, integration, system or user acceptance testing.
  • Testing tools are selected. Testing techniques are decided depending upon the functionality being tested. If repetitive testing is required in the module then automation testing is preferred while if usability of the software is being tested then manual testing is preferred.
  • Total test efforts are being estimated
  • Allocation of resources is done and their roles and respective responsibilities are decided.
  • If any training is required then training is imparted to the testers.
  • Environment requirements are being discussed in this phase which can be hardware, software, OS or network.
  • Capturing of all the approvers of the document, their titles and sign-off date.

What is Test Plan?

Unlike Test Strategy document, test plan is a low level document which is derived from SRS, UC documents and strategy document itself. Some small projects may not require project manager to prepare strategy documents but a test plan should be developed no matter what the scale of project be. It is prepared by test manager or lead.
Test Plan document is more granular and changes as the project moves forward depending on changes in approach or suggestions by team members. While test strategy document is client focused, test plan is project focused.

Read More:
Pros and Cons of Manual Testing
Benefits of Unit Testing
Difference in Test drivers and Test Stubs

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